¿La lactancia exclusiva es un factor protector en las infecciones respiratorias? Revisión sistemática de la literatura

Contenido principal del artículo

Orlando Germany Suarez
Maritza Afanador Cataño
Johana Andrea Ramirez
Diego Fernando Amariles Pérez
Oscar Villanueva
Kimberly Prieto

Resumen

Introducción: La lactancia materna (LM) es una práctica milenaria en la mayoría de las culturas y en la mayoría de los animales mamíferos. En este estudio la reconocemos hipotéticamente como un factor protector contra las infecciones respiratorias. Por esa razón, se emprendió una búsqueda científica acerca de la literatura relacionada con sus efectos en la salud respiratoria en menores de 5 años. Se tuvieron en cuenta estudios de todo el mundo, sin restricciones de raza o cultura. Se incluyeron estudios que trataran todo el tracto respiratorio, incluidos la nariz, la garganta y los oídos. Objetivos: Se buscó determinar evidencias de los beneficios de la lactancia materna (LM) y de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) en la prevención de enfermedades del tracto respiratorio en niños menores de 5 años. Métodos: Se consultaron las bases de datos Pubmed, Medline, Ovid, BVS, además de los buscadores Scielo y Science Direct. Se identificaron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que estudiaban el efecto de la lactancia materna y las infecciones respiratorias, los resultados obtenidos fueron 275 estudios, de los cuales cuatro estudios, presentaron bajo riesgo de sesgo y alta calidad metodológica. Conclusiones: La lactancia materna evidentemente previene la aparición de infecciones respiratorias, pero se necesitan más estudios al respecto. Existe controversia entre los estudios respecto a los beneficios, lo cual puede estar relacionado con sesgos de selección y de información.

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Suarez, O. G., Afanador Cataño, M., Ramirez, J. A., Amariles Pérez, D. F., Villanueva, O., & Prieto, K. . (2021). ¿La lactancia exclusiva es un factor protector en las infecciones respiratorias? Revisión sistemática de la literatura. Pediatría, 54(1), 17-27. https://doi.org/10.14295/rp.v54i1.143
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Artículos de investigación original
Biografía del autor/a

Orlando Germany Suarez, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá, Colombia. Universidad de Boyacá

UNIVERSITY OF BOYACA

Citas

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